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Implementation and Resistance: Networking to Create and Renegotiate Natura 2000

Pages 287-302
Published online: 12 Jul 2011


The implementation of the European Union's flagship conservation initiative— Natura 2000—has been particularly drawn out and difficult in the French Basque province of Soule. Local actors have vigorously resisted the creation of Natura 2000 sites and the design of management plans for these sites. This article examines the network of actors and organizations that sprung up to resist Natura 2000 alongside the network designed for its implementation. It explores the role of ethnography in network analysis and discusses the implications of this analysis for conservation policy.


1. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 0550154.

2. FDSEA and ELB are separate farming syndicates with different memberships, and the Chamber of Agriculture and Laborantza Ganbara (LG) are two different extension services. They are pictured grouped for diagram clarity and because they hold similar positions structurally.

3. The transposition process was completed in France in April 2001.

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